a) may or may not have Parkinson’s.
b) always has Parkinson’s.
c) will only develop motor symptoms of Parkinson’s.
d) will only develop non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s.
A is correct. Parkinsonism refers to the various motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease, including tremors, muscular ridigity, and akinesia. Individuals presenting with Parkinsonism may or may not have Parkinson’s. B is incorrect. An individual presenting with Parkinsonism will not always have Parkinson’s. C is incorrect. A person presenting with Parkinsonism and later diagnosed with Parkinson’s will likely develop the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s. D is incorrect. A person who presents with Parkinsonism would already have developed the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s.
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Parkinson’s disease is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects one to two percent of the senior population aged 65 and up. Because this disorder is neurodegenerative, this means that patients will typically begin by exhibiting a few symptoms of the disease and, over time, the symptoms will become more severe.. Parkinson’s is a topic of great significance in the field of medicine and for those preparing for the MCAT. After reading this article you’ll have a brief understanding of Parkinson’s disease, its key features, and its impact on the nervous system – all vital topics for the MCAT.
Through biomedical research, we are able to learn more about the biological basis of Parkinson’s disease. The loss of automatic movement and the increased need for voluntary control of movement is believed to be due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in a brain region called the substantia nigra pars compacta, which is part of the basal ganglia. Since this involves the loss of dopaminergic neurons, a common treatment for Parkinson’s disease is dopamine replacement therapy, where patients will receive a combination of drugs, including L-dopa, as well as dopamine receptor agonists. And finally, patients with Parkinson’s disease will have Lewy bodies, which are abnormal aggregates of alpha synuclein protein in their neurons. And this is something that you can see under a microscope by looking at sections of neurons from the patients. And these Lewy bodies are thought to lead to cellular dysfunction and death, which is what leads to the loss of the dopaminergic neurons and the physical symptoms that we observe.
There’s currently a lot more additional research being conducted attempting to find out more about Parkinson’s disease, but for now, this is what you need to know for the MCAT.
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